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I have been trying to formulate such an answer, fwiw: Mechanics covers the macroscopic world, the world we see even with glass microscopes and simple telescopes. Thus we may say that the photon has a probability sin2α of passing through the tourmaline and appearing on the back side polarized perpendicular to the axis and a probability cos2α of being absorbed. Many theories were suggested and many experiments performed. But this could soon change, if two USC researchers have anything to say about it, reports USC News.

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X-ray astronomy made rapid progress though having very short history. For example, if you roll a fair die, the probability of obtaining a multiple of 3 is 1/3 = 1/6+1/6; it's the sum of the probabilities (1/6 each) of the two mutually exclusive events "3" and "6". Iain Stewart and Jesse Thaler are using effective theories to improve our understanding of jet properties and jet substructure. The velocity of the earth, or anything else, could not be measured relative to the ether. (And the earth could not simply be carrying a patch of ether along with it, since the phenomenon of the aberration of starlight shows that the earth intercepts starlight at an angle, which would not happen if light were passing through the earth's fixed path of ether.) Albert Einstein then made it the basic postulate of Special Relativity that the velocity of light, which was implied by Maxwell's equations, would be the same in any inertial frame of reference, just as all the consequences of Newton's equations were the same in any inertial frame of reference. "Galilean Relativity," which abolished the absolute velocity of rest, is thus following by Einstein's Relativity, which posits the absolute velocity of light.

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Sometimes they add to make a wave bigger, sometimes they cancel each other out, and often it’s a combination of both. What if matter is really made from waves? The precise mathematical formulation of quantum theory finally emerged from two different developments. However, the information itself is somehow separate from all this. It will also predict that the intensity differences between frequencies get closer and closer together as we go out. This idea received its strongest support from Einstein, Planck, de Broglie, and the Austrian physicist Erwin Schroedinger.

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I regard matter as derivative from consciousness.” [52] Instead of consciousness arising from the brain, the brain─and all of matter─arises out of, because of, within, and as a dynamic modification of consciousness. Werner Heisenberg, another of quantum physics founding fathers, writes, “the smallest units of matter are, in fact, not physical objects in the ordinary sense of the word, they are forms, structures, or─in Plato’s sense─Ideas.” [50] It is as if the universe is one big idea, like a collective thought-form becoming materialized into living form.

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Richard Feynman Any other situation in quantum mechanics, it turns out, can be explained by saying, "You remember the case of the experiment with the two holes? So let me attempt just to report and a few expressions of my own hesitations. A new theory of quantum mechanics presumes not only that parallel worlds exist, but also that their mutual interaction is what gives rise to all quantum effects observed in nature. The probability reaches a definite peak, marking the spot at which the electron is most likely to be.

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A dispassionate study of these facts constitutes the science of religion which seeks to unravel the mystery of our inner being- the lights that guide us and the laws that mould us. It's what's called a "tachyon," a particle that travels faster than light. Soon after, he teamed up with a Russian theoretical physicist, Alexei Kitaev, who had proved that a “topological qubit” formed by the same physics could be much more reliable than qubits that other groups were building.

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I would learn russian just to read this book. These papers were directly motivated by homological mirror symmetry and topological string theory, and have greatly influenced work in areas such as string topology which you mention and the cobordism hypothesis ( Hopkins-Lurie started from Costello’s paper and abstracted the argument, before the general argument in n-dimensions came around). Table 15-01a shows the major discoveries of elementary particles over the last 100 years.

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In the following discussion these books, and their claims, are referred to as mystical physics (MP). An interpretation is a philosophical construct that allows us to sleep at night; it is a squishy heuristic that helps us unimaginative humans make sense of the math before us. Quantum electrodynamics "resolves" this wave-particle duality by saying that light is made of particles (as Newton originally thought), but the price of this great advancement of science is a retreat by physics to the position of being able to calculate only the probability that a photon will hit a detector, without offering a good model of how it actually happens. [p.37] It is worse than that, since Feynman himself must say that the light goes everywhere at once, follows all possible paths, which is something a single finite particle can't do, regardless of the probability of where it may be found by a detector (cf. p.46, about diffraction gratings).

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Planck instead showed that many deep mysteries remained. Assuming a pleasurable life, nothing less than inﬁnite lifespan will do. When we act as scientists and look for facts and accept them and then go on to use and act according to our new realizations we can make great progress. Again, this direction seems to have been largely shunned in philosophical intepretation, which was driven by skeptical presuppositions. He once said, “science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind” (Jammer p. 120).

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As Haag (1996) stresses, fields are only an instrument in order to “coordinatize” observables, more precisely: sets of observables, with respect to different finite space-time regions. And since he had shown that nothing, not even gravity, can travel faster than light, how could the earth be released from orbit before the darkness resulting from the sun's disappearance reached our eyes? However, if Planck's constant were zero, there would have been no Planck, and indeed no rational beings, or any forms of life, for it is quantization that accounts for the existence of stability and organization in the atomic substratum of the universe.